9.1 Learning and Improvement Framework
This chapter was updated in July 2017.
- 1. Introduction
- 2. Principles for learning and improvement
- 3. Surrey Safeguarding Children Partnership (SSCP) Commitment
- 4. Roles and Responsibilities
- 5. SSCP Learning & Improvement Model
- 6.Interface with Quality Assurance and Performance Management
- 7. Components of the learning and improvement framework
- 8. Principles for Conducting Audits
- 9. Measuring the Impact and Outcomes of Learning Improvements
- 10. Dissemination of Learning
- Appendix A: Types of Review
The Surrey Safeguarding Children Partnership (SSCP) Learning and Improvement Framework promotes learning from experience and from reviews against standards. It reinforces continuous improvement in partner agencies and all local organisations who work with children and families. The SSCPB Learning and Improvement Framework is informed by learning from reviews, audits, practitioners’ feedback and the voice of the child and families.
The local learning and improvement framework, which is shared across local organisations who work with children and families, is shared so that there is a growing understanding of what works well to improve outcomes for children and families. Conversely, when things have gone wrong the learning will be shared to enable service improvement to reduce the risk of future harm to children.
Professionals and organisations protecting children need to reflect upon the quality of their services and ensure that they learn from their practice, and that of others, in order to improve local safeguarding practice.
The framework will apply to all safeguarding partner agencies in their delivery and monitoring of workforce development activities. It will inform single agency frameworks to ensure connectivity and compatibility. It is important that organisational learning resulting from this framework is dynamic, cyclical and a multi-layered process that informs the SSCP’s wider strategic planning framework and determines current and future priorities.
2. Principles for learning and improvement
The principles underpinning the learning and improvement framework are:
- There should be a culture of continuous learning and improvement across the organisations that work together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children, identifying opportunities to draw on what works and promote good practice;
- The approach taken to reviews should be proportionate according to the scale and level of complexity of the issues being examined;
- Reviews of serious cases should be led by individuals who are independent of the case under review and of the organisations whose actions are being reviewed;
- Professionals should be involved fully in reviews and invited to contribute their perspectives without fear of being blamed for actions they took in good faith;
- Families, including surviving children, should be invited to contribute to reviews. They should understand how they are going to be involved and their expectations should be managed appropriately and sensitively. This is important for ensuring that the child is at the centre of the process;
- Final reports of Serious Case Reviews (SCRs) must be published, including the partnership’s response to the review findings, in order to achieve transparency. The impact of SCRs and other reviews on improving services to children and families and on reducing the incidence of deaths or serious harm to children must also be described in LSCB annual reports and will inform inspections; and
- Improvement must be sustained through regular monitoring and follow up so that the findings from these reviews make a real impact on improving outcomes for children.
3. Surrey Safeguarding Children Partnership (SSCP) Commitment
The SSCP is committed to supporting the development of a culture of continuous learning across member agencies and through the development and maintenance of this framework will respond to local and national policies and agendas.
SSCP will promote learning from a ‘full range of reviews and audits’ which are aimed at driving improvements. SSCP will monitor practice improvements and impact via the Strategic Case Review group, Child Death Overview Panel, the Quality Assurance group and the Learning and Development group. This may also include learning and improvements agreed by SSCP sub groups.
4. Roles and Responsibilities
Partner agencies and all local organisations that work with children and families are expected to endorse this framework and embed it into workforce learning and development policies.
Partner agencies and local organisations are responsible for:
- Providing staff and other resources to deliver the framework.
- Contributing to the reviews of practice undertaken by the SSCP.
- Ensuring that lessons learnt from reviews of practice are widely disseminated within their organisation through changes to policies and procedures; updating of internal training programmes and through the implementation of action plans.
Embedding learning into practice and using systems of evaluation, audit and survey to quantify the impact of learning on practice.
5. SSCP Learning & Improvement Model
The following table provides further details to support the model:
6.Interface with Quality Assurance and Performance Management
One of the objectives of this framework is to help the SSCP understand and assure itself with regard to safeguarding children in Surrey. The framework alone cannot tell the SSCP everything it needs to know but should be understood as part of a broad range of information the SSCP analyses and reviews. The table below seeks to place the learning and improvement framework in the context of the other sources of information the SSCP draws upon.
7. Components of the learning and improvement framework
The following is an outline of key learning and improvement process and activity in relation to the SSCP learning and improvement model.
A notifiable incident is an incident involving the care of a child which meets any of the following criteria:
- A child has died (including cases of suspected suicide), and abuse or neglect is known or suspected;
- A child has been seriously harmed and abuse or neglect is known or suspected;
- A looked after child has died (including cases where abuse or neglect is not known or suspected); or
- A child in a regulated setting or service has died (including cases where abuse or neglect is not known or suspected).
The local authority should report any incident that meets the above criteria to OFSTED and the relevant safeguarding partnership/s promptly, and within five working days of becoming aware that the incident has occurred.
NB If an incident meets the criteria for a Serious Case Review then it will also meet the criteria for a notifiable incident.
There will, however, be notifiable incidents that do not proceed through to Serious Case Review.
Contact details and notification forms for notifying incidents to OFSTED are available on OFSTED’s website.
Initiation of Case Reviews including Serious Case Reviews
The SSCP Strategic Case Review Group (SCRG) makes recommendations about cases meeting the criteria for a serious case review, or partnership review and identify learning themes.
The final decision about whether or not a case meets the serious case review criteria rests with the SSCP Independent Chair.
See Appendix A for details of alternative reviews undertaken following serious incident notifications; child death reviews (CDOP), Partnerhsip Reviews and Single Agency Reviews.
Serious Case Reviews, Partnership Reviews and Child Death Overview Panel processes use systems methodologies which are tailored to fit individual case requirements. Terms of reference documents for reviews identify the approach to be taken, the panel/reviewing group, the independent overview writer, the scope and timescale of the review.
For details of the serious case review process, methodologies and referral form see www.surreyscb.org.uk/case reviews
Domestic Homicide Reviews
Whilst these are the responsibility of Boroughs and Districts, there are occasions where joint SCRs/DHRs take place and learning from such reviews should be disseminated to practitioners and managers through the usual channels outlined in this framework. (Criteria for DHRs can be found in the following Home Office document: Multi-agency statutory guidance for the conduct of domestic homicide reviews. 2016 Home Office.)
National Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panel
The Panel was established under the Children and Social Work Act 2017 and operates under the relevant legislation and statutory guidance. The Panel has the power to commission reviews of serious child safeguarding cases and to work with local safeguarding partners to improve learning and professional practice arising from such cases.
The criteria and guidance when deciding whether it is appropriate to commission a national review of a case, or cases, are set out in Working Together (2018).
8. Principles for Conducting Audits
The SSCP has adopted the standards applied by Surrey County Council when conducting multi-agency audits and case file reviews. Please visit http://www.surreyscb.org.uk/professionals/quality-assurance-evaluation/ for guidance and standards applied by the SSCP when conducting audits.
The SSCP should use data and as, a minimum, should:
- Assess the effectiveness of the help being provided to children and families, including early help.
- Assess whether SSCP partners are fulfilling their statutory obligations.
- Quality assure practice, including through joint audits of case files involving practitioners and identify lessons to be learnt.
- Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of training, including multi agency training, to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.
Statutory Section 11 audits are conducted by the Board on a biennial basis and action plans are monitored in the interim to ensure that partners are fulfilling statutory obligations.
9. Measuring the Impact and Outcomes of Learning Improvements
The SSCP through the Quality Assurance Group and the Learning and Development Group will ensure that processes are in place to measure the impact and/or outcome of learning improvements, intervention or training. The measures used will be both quantitative and qualitative.
Multi-agency training will be evaluated using a four-stage evaluation tool, based on the New World Kirkpatrick model, to measure the impact that training has on practice by quantifying participant knowledge and confidence prior to, during and after training.
Learning improvements should be sustainable. Where a case gives rise to concerns that prior learning from case reviews has not been embedded into practice the SSCP will review practice through practitioner forums or case audits to understand why the learning has not been sustained.
10. Dissemination of Learning
Wide dissemination of learning outcomes will be a key part of embedding learning into practice.
The SSCP will:
- Facilitate multi-agency learning events for professionals involved in specific cases
- Provide targeted workshops to support partners in embedding learning into practice change and development.
- Provide briefings, newsletters and communications to partner agencies and relevant organisations.
- Publish learning leaflets following completion and publication of Serious Case Reviews.
- Deliver a multi-agency training strategy and training programme.
- Map themes from Serious Case Reviews, Partnership Reviews, Domestic Homicide Reviews and audits to inform planning and service development to identify and address regularly occurring themes.
Partner organisations are expected to:
- Cascade learning outcomes throughout their organisations using appropriate communication channels.
- Update single agency training to reflect current practice and reflect learning outcomes from case reviews and audit.
The SSCP Learning & Improvement Framework is reviewed annually by the SSCP Policy & Procedures Group.
Appendix A: Types of Review
Serious Case Review
Where cases meet criteria for a Serious Case Review as set out in Regulation 5 of the LSCB Regulations 2006, review activity is proportionate to the specific circumstances of the case.
Strategic Case Review Group will recommend the most appropriate methodology for conducting the review, agree the Terms of Reference, Scope of the review and identify the Independent Chair if required and the Independent Overview Writer.
Partnership reviews are reviews of cases which fall below the SCR threshold which could lead to significant and new learning.
Cases can involve incidents where a child has been harmed, or cases where multi-agency practice is considered to be good (after a child has been harmed or where a child has been prevented from being harmed) and agencies seek to identify the elements of that good multi-agency practice
The methodology used to undertake a review and how the lessons will be disseminated will be decided locally by each safeguarding partnership.
Single Agency Reviews
Where a case is considered for a serious case review or partnership review but does not meet the criteria, as the practice requiring further analysis and learning is limited to a single agency, the independent chair may recommend a single agency review.